Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was established in 1918. It was colonized by the Russian Empire for more than 80 years. The Azerbaijan state was invaded by the Ssoviet forces in the year 1920 and ruled it for several years until it collapsed at around year 1991, a period of over seventy years when it attained its independence (Rezvani 2013).
In 1980s, when Gorbachev was in power, there was an increased political pressure caused by violation of human rights by the ruling government.. Russia was facing political instability severally during the period coupled with military rule. The communist party championed human right by condemning injustices and violence during the military rule. (Rezvani 2013).
According to Schwirtz, Aliye, & Gambar (2011), Popular Front of Azerbaijan (PFA) was the most powerful of all the organizations, which by the fall of 1989 targeted taking power from the Communist party. There was as split in PFA between the conservative societies advocating for the status quo and the agents of change who were unsatisfied with political instability and authoritarian rulers moderate. Separation of the two groups resulted in violence between Baku community and the powerful Soviet Union resulting to death of 132 demonstrators who were killed by Soviet troops.. The unrest led to a violent confrontation when 132 nationalist demonstrators were killed by Soviet troops. Azerbaijan split out of USSR in 1991 and became a member state of Common Wealth.